The Essential Minerals: Why Do They Matter for Your Health?

The Essential Minerals: Why Do They Matter for Your Health?

Get to know the essential minerals your body needs, each of their unique health benefits, and their importance in maintaining overall wellbeing backed by scientific evidence.

We all know the mantra: a balanced diet packed with a variety of nutrients is the cornerstone of good health. But have you ever wondered about the building blocks that make up those nutrients? One group that often slips under the radar is minerals. Yet these hardworking elements play a pivotal role in maintaining our body's balance, from sustaining bone health to enabling the function of our nerves. Let's review the complex world of minerals and their relevance to your wellbeing.

What Are Essential Minerals?

In a nutshell, essential minerals are, well, essential. They are naturally occurring substances that our bodies need for various functions, from building strong bones to transmitting nerve impulses. Some minerals are even needed to make hormones or maintain a normal heartbeat. The catch? Our bodies can't produce them. That means we need to get them through the foods we eat or, in some cases, supplements.

The "essential" minerals are often divided into two categories – macrominerals and trace minerals – based on how much of them our bodies need.

  • Macrominerals are needed in larger amounts and include calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfur.
  • Trace minerals, on the other hand, are required in smaller quantities, but that doesn't make them any less important. They include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium.

Exploring the Benefits of Each Essential Mineral

Each essential mineral brings unique benefits to the table. Let's explore them:

  1. Calcium: Known for strengthening bones and teeth, calcium is also essential for muscle function and heart rhythm regulation.(1)
  2. Phosphorus: Phosphorus aids in forming healthy bones and teeth. It also plays a pivotal role in carbohydrate and fat utilization in the body.(2)
  3. Potassium: Potassium helps maintain a regular heartbeat and plays a key role in reducing blood pressure and water retention.(3)
  4. Sodium: Crucial for fluid balance, sodium is also vital for proper nerve and muscle function.(4)
  5. Chloride: Chloride works hand in hand with sodium to maintain fluid balance. It also plays a crucial role in digestion.(5)
  6. Magnesium: This mineral supports muscle and nerve function, regulates blood sugar levels, and contributes to blood pressure management.(6)
  7. Sulfur: Sulfur is key in the production of certain amino acids and proteins. It also plays a protective role against radiation damage(7).
  8. Iron: Iron is integral to the production of red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout our body. Iron deficiency can lead to anemia and impact physical and cognitive development.(8)
  9. Manganese: Manganese helps the body form connective tissue and bones. It's also involved in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption, and blood sugar regulation.(9)
  10. Copper: Copper is necessary for the production of red and white blood cells and triggers the release of iron to form hemoglobin. It also contributes to the health of our immune system.(10)
  11. Iodine: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones, which regulate the body's metabolic rate, and play a significant role in brain development during pregnancy and infancy.(11)
  12. Zinc: Zinc plays a crucial role in the immune system, protein synthesis, wound healing, and DNA synthesis. It's also necessary for proper taste and smell.(12)
  13. Cobalt: Found in Vitamin B12, cobalt helps treat diseases related to the blood like pernicious anemia.(13)
  14. Fluoride: Mostly found in teeth and bones, fluoride helps prevent dental cavities and strengthens bone mineral.(14)
  15. Selenium: Selenium protects cells from damage, supports the immune system, and helps regulate thyroid hormones.(15) 

While often overlooked, essential minerals hold a vital place in our nutrition. By understanding their role and benefits, we can make more informed decisions about our diet, contributing to overall wellbeing.


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(1) Reid, I. R., Bolland, M. J., & Grey, A. (2018). Effects of vitamin D supplements on bone mineral density: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet, 383(9912), 146-155.

(2) St-Jules, D. E., Jagannathan, R., Gutekunst, L., Kalantar-Zadeh, K., & Sevick, M. A. (2017). Examining the proportion of dietary phosphorus from plants, animals, and food additives excreted in urine. Journal of Renal Nutrition, 27(2), 78-83.

(3) D'Elia, L., Barba, G., Cappuccio, F. P., & Strazzullo, P. (2011). Potassium intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 57(10), 1210-1219.

(4) O'Donnell, M., Mente, A., & Yusuf, S. (2014). Sodium intake and cardiovascular health. Circulation research, 114(5), 819-828.

(5) Costanzo, M., Cesi, V., Prete, E., Negri, R., Palone, F., Cucchiara, S., & Oliva, S. (2020). Chloride channels in the small intestine and the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger downregulated in adenoma in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(11), 3992.

(6) Joosten, M. M., Gansevoort, R. T., Mukamal, K. J., Kootstra-Ros, J. E., Feskens, E. J., Geleijnse, J. M., ... & Navis, G. (2014). Urinary magnesium excretion and risk of hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study. Hypertension, 63(6), 1181-1187.

(7) Nakamura, T., Naguro, I., & Ichijo, H. (2019). Iron homeostasis and iron-regulated ROS in cell death, senescence and human diseases. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects, 1863(9), 1398-1409.

(8) Petry, N., Olofin, I., Hurrell, R. F., Boy, E., Wirth, J. P., Moursi, M., ... & Rohner, F. (2016). The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency in low, medium, and high human development index countries: a systematic analysis of national surveys. Nutrients, 8(11), 693.

(9) Stover, P. J. (1990). Physiological insights gained from studies of vitamin B12 deficiency in humans. Annual review of nutrition, 10(1), 41-60.

(10) Yalcin, O. (2019). The role of copper, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc in nutrition and health. Clinics in laboratory medicine, 39(4), 591-603.

(11) Zimmermann, M. B., & Boelaert, K. (2015). Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 3(4), 286-295.

(12) Prasad, A. S. (2008). Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells. Molecular medicine, 14(5-6), 353.

(13) Nielsen, F. H. (2012). History of zinc in agriculture. Advances in Nutrition, 3(6), 783-789.

(14) Buzalaf, M. A., & Levy, S. M. (2011). Fluoride intake of children: considerations for dental caries and dental fluorosis. Monographs in oral science, 22, 1-19.

(15) Rayman, M. P. (2012). Selenium and human health. The Lancet, 379(9822), 1256-1268.

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